granted を与える 認める 授ける
A group of Afghan school girls taking part in a robotics competition in the US have been granted visas to attend it, after their initial applications were denied, US media said.
take part 参加する
attend it それに出席する
initial applications 最初の申請
US President Donald Trump had urged authorities to rethink their decision, AP news agency said.
urged 人 to rethink 人に再考するよう求める
A US travel ban is in place for six Muslim-majority countries, which does not include Afghanistan.
Students from The Gambia earlier also had their visa rejection overturned.
According to AP, Homeland Security Department spokesman David Lapan said the visas for the Afghan girls had been approved after a request by the state department.
Homeland Security Department spokesman 国土安全保障省の人
state department 国務省
White House spokeswoman Sarah Huckabee Sanders attributed the request to an intervention by President Trump, the news agency said.
intervention 仲介 干渉
The competition organised by non-profit group First Global will see teams from 164 countries compete in a series of robotic games.
“I am most grateful to the US Government and its state department for ensuring Afghanistan, as well as Gambia, would be able to join us for this international competition this year,” First Global president Joe Sestak said in a statement.
The US president’s daughter and adviser Ivanka Trump tweeted in response to news that she looked forward to welcoming the Afghan team to Washington.
look forward to 楽しみにする
The Afghan team of six teenage high school students are participating in the competition which runs 16-18 July with a ball-sorting robot.
The girls’ visa applications for the one-week trip to the US had reportedly been blocked despite two rounds of interviews.
interview 訪問 会見 ビザ取得のための面接か？
After the initial rejection, the students expected they would have to watch the competition via Skype from their hometown of Herat in western Afghanistan.
expected 予測した 予想した
“We were not a terrorist group to go to America and scare people,” 14-year-old Fatema Ghaderyan told the AFP news agency in Herat.
“We just wanted to show the power and skills of Afghan girls to Americans.”
First Global aims to promote Stem subjects (science, technology, engineering and maths).
aim 狙い 目的
“All 163 teams from 157 countries have gained approval to the United States, including Iran, Sudan, and a team of Syrian refugees,” Mr Sestak said. “I could not be more proud.”
retail site 小売サイト
One of Japan’s largest online retailers has banned the sale of ivory, closing a major marketplace for the controversial trade.
Rakuten is accused of being the world’s largest online retailer for elephant ivory, but will now phase out its sale.
accused of ～ ～で訴えられる
phase out 段階的に廃止
The trade is legal in Japan for items imported before 1989 – but no new stock can be brought into the country.
Many other countries have banned the trade outright over concerns that it contributes to elephant poaching.
contributes 貢献 寄与
Rakuten also banned the sale of sea turtle products on its site, telling AFP news agency it was responding to “growing international concern”.
sea turtle ウミガメ
“We expect it will take 1-2 months for all listings of these prohibited products to be removed,” it said.
On the day of the announcement, a large number of ivory items were still listed for sale, including many carved personal seals known as “hanko”.
Sellers of such items are expected to maintain careful records of their origin, and use only government-regulated ivory stockpiles.
government regulated 政府によって規制された
But activists believe the rules are often circumvented and the precious material is often smuggled across borders.
Yahoo Japan, another site which allows the sale of ivory, has previously come under fire for the practice.
practice 実行 実践 実際
However, a spokesman told Reuters it did not plan to halt the trade, saying: “We don’t think that the legal ivory trade in Japan has any impact on African elephant numbers.”
“It is important to recognise there are cultural differences between different countries,” he added.
African elephant numbers have plummeted in the last century, and there are an estimated 500,000 remaining on the continent.
remaining 残った 残りの
China, a traditional powerhouse in the ivory trade, announced in December that it would ban all ivory activities and trade by the end of 2017.
Conservation groups hailed the decision as “historic” and a “game-changer” – but ivory artists have lamented the loss of a traditional craft.
lamented 嘆く 嘆き悲しむ
It was just one word in one email, but it triggered huge financial losses for a multinational company.
multi-national company 多国籍企業
The message, written in English, was sent by a native speaker to a colleague for whom English was a second language. Unsure of the word, the recipient found two contradictory meanings in his dictionary. He acted on the wrong one.
Unsure of 確信がなくて
contradictory 矛盾した 両立した
Months later, senior management investigated why the project had flopped, costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. “It all traced back to this one word,” says Chia Suan Chong, a UK-based communications skills and intercultural trainer, who didn’t reveal the tricky word because it is highly industry-specific and possibly identifiable. “Things spiralled out of control because both parties were thinking the opposite.”
charged （議論などが）熱のこもった 激しい
charged over ～を問う
One of Japan’s leading advertising agencies has been charged over the death of an employee from overwork.
Dentsu is accused of violating labour standards after Matsuri Takahashi, 24, killed herself in 2015.
be accused of ~で告発されている
violating 破る 犯す 違反する
Her friends said Ms Takahashi – who had been at the firm for less than a year – claimed to be so busy she slept just 10 hours a week.
the firm 会社
for less than a year 一年足らずで
Death from overwork is relatively common in Japan, where it has its own word: karoshi.
Ms Takahashi is reported to have worked 100 hours of overtime a month for some time before her death.
She died on Christmas day 2015. According to reports, a note left behind for her mother included the line: “Why do things have to be so hard?”
The Asahi Shimbun newspaper said the company was being charged over illegal overtime, and that prosecutors were seeking a fine.
That would effectively end the investigation, Kyodo news agency reported.
The case against Dentsu targets the corporate entity, but not any individuals.
against に対して 反して ぶつかって
corporate entity 法人
But Kyodo news agency quoted Ms Takahashi’s mother as saying she was “unconvinced” about the lack of charges for her daughter’s superiors.
The high-profile case has led to renewed calls for changes to Japan’s notoriously long working hours and illegal unpaid overtime.
the high-profile 大変な事件
notoriously 悪名高い 悪名が知れ渡るほどに
renew 生まれ変わらせる 更生させる
Officially, there are several hundred cases of karoshi each year, although campaigners say the real number is even higher.
even + 比較級 いっそう さらに
Dentsu has made a number of reforms in the aftermath of Ms Takahashi’s case, reported to include turning off the lights at 22:00 every night in a bid to force employees to leave.
aftermath 状態 余波
The agency’s chief executive, Tadashi Ishii, offered his resignation last December over the controversy.
over によって で 巡って
The pressure to work more and sleep less is driving a global epidemic with worrying consequences, says neuroscientist Matt Walker. He spoke to James Fletcher of The Inquiry podcast.
driving 駆り立てる 酷使する
epidemic はやりの 流行の
consequence 結果 成り行き
“Back in the 1940s people were sleeping on average just a little bit over eight hours a night, and now in the modern age we’re down to around 6.7, 6.8 hours a night,” says Matt Walker, professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.
down to ～に至るまで
“So that’s a staggering loss of sleep within the space of just 70 years, we’re now almost at the stage where we’ve lopped off 20% of that.”
staggering よろめく びっくりするほどの 驚異的な
lopped off ばっさりきる
For adults, the modern world is full of things which reduce sleep. Caffeine, which keeps us awake. Alcohol, which fragments our sleep and suppresses dreaming. And although we’ve improved the conditions for sleeping, with everything from better mattresses to smoke-free homes, our controlled environment may also have created problems, Walker says.
full of いっぱい
suppresses 抑える 抑制する
improved 改善する 向上させる
“One, which people may find surprising, is central heating and central air conditioning. So, when the sun sets, temperature drops dramatically and when the sun rises it starts to pick back up. Our bodies expect that beautiful thermal lull. And what we have done is dislocate ourselves from the natural ebb and flow that tells us when it’s time to sleep and actually helps us get to sleep.”
find surprising 驚くべき発見
sunset 日没 日の入り 夕焼け
pick back up バックアップを取る
lull なだめる 静める
dislocate 調子を狂わせる 混乱させる
natural ebb 自然な落ち着き
And then there’s technology. No longer just artificial light, but all sorts of devices with LED screens, emitting a powerful form of blue light.
no longer ~ but ~ もはや～でなく～
“Now that blue light unfortunately will put the brakes on the release of a hormone called melatonin at night, and melatonin signals when you should sleep.
“Technology also causes sleep procrastination. Midnight is the time when we think, well, we should probably send our last email, let me just check Facebook one more time.
And to all this, we can add the modern offspring of the early rising movement – the economic and social pressure to work more, sleep less, and be more like some famous world leaders – including Donald Trump, Barack Obama and Margaret Thatcher – who have claimed to exist on five hours of sleep a night or less.
modern offspring 現代の子孫
claim to 主張する
But should we be aspiring to be more like George W. Bush, who reportedly went to bed around 9pm and got as much as nine hours sleep each night?
shold we 我々がすべき
“Based on probably about 10,000 research study papers now. The number of people who can survive on six hours of sleep or less and show no impairment, rounded to a whole number and expressed as a per cent, is zero.”
no impairment 減損のない
Professor Walker says with anything less than seven hours’ sleep, we start to see health consequences.
“Every major disease that is killing us in the developed world: Alzheimer’s, cancer, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, suicidality. All of them have direct now and very strong causal links to deficient sleep.”
casual links 因果関係